In this section Economic performance and outlook Since the end of the —13 political crisis, Madagascar has experienced a slow economic recovery that is vulnerable to macroeconomic shocks, such as drops in nickel and cobalt prices, and climatic disasters, such as drought, hurricanes, and floods. Due to the slow rate of agricultural modernization, the primary sector regularly suffers from the adverse effects of climate change. In —16, the economy grew a relatively modest 3. Since then, economic performance has been encouraging, with real GDP growth of 4.
History In a cataclysmic earthquake, Madagascar broke free from Africa about million years ago.
The animals of Madagascar found plentiful foodstuffs, and an almost total lack of predators. Because evolutionary pressures on Madagascar's early inhabitants were almost nonexistent, the island literally teems with life forms that have changed little in hundreds of thousands, even millions of years.
In many ways, Madagascar is literally a land that time forgot. The first humans arrived on Madagascar around 2, years ago, most likely using outrigger canoes hailing from India, Africa, and Arabia. Unfortunately for many of these creatures, the arrival of man represented their first encounter with a predator.
It took almost 1, years, but skilled human hunters managed to drive almost two dozen of those unique and irreplaceable animal species to extinction. Although they lived in tribes, the African, Indian, and Arabic races managed to avoid segregation. Over many hundreds of years, an incredible synthesis of tradition, religion, language, and genetics took place, creating a society remarkable in its uniformity of language and beliefs, and striking in its physical beauty.
InPortugese explorers landed on the island of Madagascar, did a little exploration, and returned to Europe. Word of the Portugese "discovery" spread to France and England, and both countries rushed to establish settlements on the island.
The local tribes formed loose coalitions to succesfully defend themselves against the invading Europeans again and again.
InKing Andrianampoinimerina managed to unite the various tribes of Madagascar, forming a single kingdom. Each of his subjects was given enough land to meet the nutritional needs of his family, and the practice of burning rainforests to obtain additional land was banned.
ByAndrianampoinimerina's son, King Radama I, formed friendly relationships with the major European powers, and invited British missionaries to his country. Led by David Jones, the missionaries introduced the Roman alphabet and Christianity to Radama's subjects.
Immediately after Radama's death inhis widow Queen Ranavalona took the throne. Referred to even to this day as the wicked queen, Ranavalona forced the missionaries out of Madagascar, and executed her subjects with a zeal never before seen in this land.
Queen Ranavalona died inturning the reigns of power over to a succession of largely ineffective monarchs. Inthe French attacked Madagascar. After almost three years of warfare, Madagascar became a French protectorate, and then, after a massive invasion by French forces, Madagascar became a full-fledged French colony.
The monarchy was abolished, and French became the official language. De Gaulle immediately granted Madagascar its independence. A benign leader, Tsiranana was reviled by radical elements as a puppet of the recently departed French.
Tiring of the vociferous protesters, Tsiranana finally stepped down in He was succeeded by Didier Ratsiraka, a naval officer. Ratsiraka was re-elected twice, replaced briefly by Dr. Albert Zafy inand then re-elected a third time before losing a tumultuous election to Marc Ravalomanana, who was president from to He was forced out of office and replaced by Andry Rajoelina, who stepped down when elections were held in Notable among these activities was the Department of State’s second-annual East Africa Joint Operations Capstone exercise, a month-long training series hosted in Kenya for Kenyan, Tanzanian, and Ugandan law enforcement personnel.
Madagascar is the world's fourth biggest island after Greenland, New Guinea and Borneo.
Because of its isolation most of its mammals, half its birds, and most of its plants exist nowhere else on. On March 27, , the inauguration of Albert Zafy as the third elected president of Madagascar since independence marked the beginning of the Third Republic.
Data as of August This is excerped from the Country Studies--Area Handbook program of the U.S. Department of the Army. AN OVERVIEW OF THE PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY OF AFRICA.
PHYSICAL FEATURES. Africa straddles the equator, having an almost equal south and north extent. This division of Africa into almost two equal parts (lengthwise) across the equator makes the climatic and physical conditions in the north repeat themselves in the south.
Madagascar has a unique. Madagascar is among the ten countries most vulnerable to natural disastersand is considered as the most cyclone-exposed country in Africa. A quarter of the population lives in areas highly prone to cyclones, floods or drought.
Overview: Rice in Africa. enormous. A rapid increase in the area under rice, irrigated as well as rainfed, is necessary.
In particular, the development of new irrigated. rice schemes is vital. Only about 17% of the rice area in Africa is irrigated.
Asia, in contrast, has about 57% of the rice area under.